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The finished kiln showing the final insulation layer which is between 4-5" thick. Consisting of sand, sawdust, pearlite and a small amount of portland cement to bind the mixture together. This is a very efficient insulator, when the kiln is at full temperature this outside layer is still bearable to touch. Also visible is the flame viewing hole in the chimney, this is used to judge the stoking of the kiln by stoking relative to the time alapsed after the flame has dropped below this hole, this will vary depending on the stage of the firing.